The physiological significance of the detection of bioactive IL-1 in normal testicular IF is uncertain. Although the possibility cannot be excluded that the levels of IL-1 measured in the present study may be due in part to release or leakage from the Sertoli cells during the collection period, a previous study using a push-pull cannula approach to collect testicular IF indicated that significant IL-1 bioactivity is normally present in this fluid in vivo. levitra super active plus
Certainly, the Leydig cells possess IL-1 receptors and these cells are responsive to IL-1 under different culture conditions, although the actual effect of IL-1 on Leydig cell steroidogenesis appears to be determined by the culture conditions employed. These data suggest that IL-1 is a locally produced cytokine secreted by the tubules that may be involved in paracrine regulation of the Leydig cells, in addition to its anticipated actions on spermatogenesis, and that may contribute to the steroidogenic regulatory activity of IF. Moreover, these data indicate that other members of the IL-1 family such as IL-1(3, which might be generated during inflammation in the testis, or IL-lra also may play a role in influencing testicular function.