This is further supported by the different peripheral blood leukocyte response observed after challenge with the extract prepared from corn dust compared with endotoxin and soybean dust extract. Interestingly, peripheral lymphocyte counts actually dropped after inhalation of corn dust extract and were significantly lower than the lymphocyte counts 6 h after inhalation of HBSS. Twenty-four hours after inhalation challenge, there were significantly more lymphocytes in the nasal lavage fluid after inhalation of corn dust extract than after inhalation of HBSS, suggesting recruitment of peripheral blood lymphocytes into the mucosa of the upper airways. These differences were present, but not statistically significant, after inhalation of endotoxin and soybean dust extract.
These relationships were also observed for neutrophil counts; however, there were no increases in immature forms or eosinophils. Interestingly, absolute peripheral blood lymphocyte counts were significantly lower 6 h after inhalation challenge with corn dust extract than after HBSS (Fig 3, p = 0.02). Although a decrease in the peripheral lymphocyte count was also seen after challenge with both endotoxin and soybean dust extract, these differences were not statistically significant.
Total and percent lymphocyte counts in nasal lavage fluids collected 24 h after challenge with corn dust extract were significantly greater than in specimens collected 24 h after challenge with HBSS (Fig 4, p = 0.03). While nasal lavage lymphocytes were also greater than HBSS 24 h after inhalation of the endotoxin solution and the soybean dust extract, these were not statistically different from the response to HBSS. There were no other significant differences observed in nasal lavage cellularity associated with the specific inhalation challenges.
Percentage of baseline temperature was elevated significantly 3 and 4 h after inhalation challenge with the endotoxin solution when compared with inhalation challenge with HBSS. While the response after inhalation of the corn dust extract was similar to that of the endotoxin solution, it was not statistically different from HBSS. In contrast, the temperature response after inhalation of soybean dust extract was quite similar to that of HBSS. The heart rate mirrored the temperature responses, with the responses to both corn dust extract and endotoxin being significantly greater than to HBSS. Again, the response to soybean dust extract was most similar to that of HBSS. Respiratory rate was significantly greater 5 and 6 h after challenge with com dust extract than after challenge with HBSS. However, inhalation of both endotoxin and soybean dust extract resulted in changes in the respiratory rate similar to those occurring after inhalation challenge with HBSS (vital signs data not shown). canadian pharmacy
We used a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design to evaluate the systemic, pulmonary, and mucosal inflammatory effects of inhaled nebulized endotoxin, corn dust extract, soybean dust extract, and pyrogen-free, calcium-free, and magnesium-free Hanks’ balanced salt solution (HBSS) (Cell-Gro; Media-Tech, Inc., Herndon, Va).
Subjects were required to be healthy never-smokers taking no prescription medicines, with no history of agricultural work. While no bronchoprovocative testing or skin testing was done, they were required to have no history consistent with asthma and no history suggestive of atopy (seasonal allergies or rhinitis). Subjects were recruited by a newspaper advertisement. Of 16 individuals volunteering for this investigation, 3 men and 4 women met the inclusion criteria and were selected as participants in the study. The mean age of the subjects was 26.9 years (range, 19 to 36 years). canadianneighborpharmacy.com
Grain handlers have been shown to have accelerated deterioration of pulmonary function when compared with civic workers. Reductions in airflow have been shown to occur over the course of one workshift and one work week. Both acute deterioration in lung function at work and increased airway reactivity, as assessed by methacholine challenge, appear to correlate with progressive loss of lung function in grain handlers. canadian pharmacy mall
Inhalation of grain dust appears to induce an acute local inflammatory response as well as a systemic response. Increases in peripheral blood granulocyte counts occur between 2 and 24 h after inhalation of grain dust and aqueous grain dust extracts. Bron-choalvolear lavage (BAL) performed on workers exposed to grain dust reveals excess neutrophils in the initial portion of the lavage fluid. Von Essen et al found that neutrophils had infiltrated the mucosa of the lower airways of guinea pigs 24 h after instillation of grain sorghum dust extract. Composite samples from the initial portion of BAL and nasal lavage obtained 24 h after inhalation of nebulized grain dust extract by human volunteers have also demonstrated a predominance of neutrophils.