Category Archives: Intrauterine Infection

Amniotic Fluid Prolactin: RESULTS(2)

For purposes of analysis, data for the animals receiving choriodecidual inoculation were combined with those for the animals receiving primary intraamniotic inoculation. Preliminary studies revealed that choriodecidual inoculation did not result in increases in uterine contractility or amniotic fluid cytokines until after secondary colonization or infection of the amniotic fluid with GBS. After secondary intraamniotic infection, increases in uterine activity and in amniotic fluid cytokines were temporally and quantitatively similar to those changes seen with primary intraamniotic infection.

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Amniotic Fluid Prolactin: RESULTS(1)



Two animals with portal catheters and three animals subjected to amniocentesis were used to collect control samples representative of normal pregnancy and spontaneous delivery. The earliest sample was collected at 132.8 ± 0.8 days of gestation, and the mean delivery time was 163.8 ± 1.6 days of gestation. Prolactin levels were grouped into six segments of 5-7 days relative to the time of delivery, with each point representing 4 to 5 animals. Prolactin levels in the amniotic fluid were stable and unchanging during this sampling period of 130-166 days of gestation (Fig. 1).

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Amniotic Fluid Prolactin: MATERIALS AND METHODS(4)

Amniotic Fluid Analysis

Amniotic fluid samples were immediately centrifuged after collection at 3000 ipm and 4°C for 20 min. The sedi-mented debris was discarded, and the supernatant was stored in vials at -20°C until assayed. Cytokine, progesterone, and PGE2 concentrations were determined as previously reported. Briefly, the concentration of IL-lp was measured by commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay (Cistron, Pine Brook, NY) with monoclonal antibodies specific for each cytokine in humans. TNFa concentrations were determined by bioassay with a subcloned WEHI mouse fibroblast cell line. The lower limit of detection for both IL-lp and TNFa was 20 pg/ml. PGE2 was measured by a procedure outlined by Haluska et al.. Progesterone was measured by RIA in the P30 hormone assay core.

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Amniotic Fluid Prolactin: MATERIALS AND METHODS(3)


Nine chronically instrumented monkeys were treated with IL-ip on Day 146.5 ± 7.2 of gestation. A dose of 10 |xg (1-1.5 fig/kg) of human recombinant IL-ip (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN) in saline was infused over a 2-h period (1100-1300 h) into the amniotic cavity at a rate of 6 ml/h. Amniotic fluid samples were obtained relative to infusion at — 24 h and — 1 h, then at least once during the following 24-72 h and at labor. If labor did not occur, then additional samples were obtained. Of the 9 animals that received IL-lp, 1 animal was excluded from further analysis due to death of the fetus and 2 animals were excluded due to rapid onset of labor and insufficiency of samples (final n = 6).

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Amniotic Fluid Prolactin: MATERIALS AND METHODS(2)

Control Samples

Animals (n = 6) going through spontaneous delivery at term with minimal instrumentation were used to collect control samples. Two types of collection procedures were used: portal catheters and amniocentesis. Portal catheters were placed inside the amniotic fluid cavity through a small incision in the body of the uterus at approximately 130 days of gestation. Catheters were tracked subcutaneously to the area above the sternum. Silicone elastomer-covered portals were connected to the catheters and buried under the skin. Transabdominal amniocentesis was performed using a Terumo spinal needle (Terumo Corp., Tokyo, Japan; 6 cm, 22 g) inserted with ultrasound guidance through the uterine fundus just above the cervix. Samples were collected during daylight hours at weekly intervals from 130 to 150 days of pregnancy and at 2- to 3-day intervals thereafter. Animals were under ketamine sedation for sample collection with either technique. buy ampicillin

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Amniotic Fluid Prolactin: MATERIALS AND METHODS(1)


Animal Preparation

Pregnant rhesus monkeys (Масаса mulatto) with timed gestations were chronically catheterized as previously described. Briefly, at approximately Day 110 of gestation, with term being 167 days, pregnant animals were conditioned to a jacket-and-tether system. After conditioning, intrauterine surgery was performed between Days 119 and 124 of gestation under halothane anesthesia. Maternal femoral arterial and venous catheters, fetal arterial and venous catheters, two open-ended intraamniotic pressure catheters, myometrial electromyographic electrodes, and fetal electrocardiographic electrodes were surgically implanted.

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Amniotic Fluid Prolactin Is Decreased by Experimental Intrauterine Infection or lnterleukin-1 p Infusion(2)

Recently, Handwerger and colleagues reported that the Gram-negative bacterial product, lipopolysaccharide, inhibits prolactin release from human decidual cells in culture. Lipopolysaccharide has also been reported to increase the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and the release of PGE2 in the decidua. In addition, the proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1, IL-6, and TNFa inhibit decidual prolactin secretion in culture. Taken together, these observations suggest that bacterial products act upon the decidual macrophages to increase proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 and PGs, which in turn act in a paracrine manner to decrease prolactin secretion. asthma inhalers

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Amniotic Fluid Prolactin Is Decreased by Experimental Intrauterine Infection or lnterleukin-1 p Infusion(1)

lnterleukin-1 p Infusion(1)

It is now apparent that a causal relationship exists between intrauterine infection and preterm labor. The proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-l, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor a (TNFa), are thought to play a central role in the pathophysiology of infection-induced labor. These cytokines, released in response to bacterial products, stimulate prostaglandin (PG) production by the decidua. In addition, bacterial products can directly stimulate PG production by the decidua. The hormone prolactin is produced by the decidualized endometrium of pregnancy, and its secretion may also be altered by the presence of bacterial products or cytokines. Prolactin is secreted into the amniotic fluid [8], where very high concentrations accumulate. The high concentrations of prolactin in amniotic fluid suggest that it has an important physiological role in the maintenance of pregnancy, but its exact function remains speculative. buy prednisone

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