Category Archives: Intrauterine Infection

Amniotic Fluid Prolactin: DISCUSSION(8)

Thus, the available data in women and in nonhuman primates suggest there is no pre-labor decline in amniotic fluid prolactin or in maternal, fetal, or amniotic fluid progesterone levels. Because decidual prolactin production is so closely regulated by progesterone, these data provide indirect evidence for the absence of a localized progesterone withdrawal mechanism at the level of the maternal decidua that would initiate parturition. Similarly, one could argue against an increase in endogenous cytokine production in the decidua and suggest that peripartum fluetuations in amniotic fluid prolactin are related to the consequences of labor and not the initiation of labor. This view is supported by our previous work in the rhesus monkey indicating that in the absence of infection, the spontaneous onset of labor is preceded by an increase in amniotic fluid PGE2 and PGF2„ but not in the concentrations of IL-13 or TNFa. Recent evidence also indicates that decidual tissue obtained from women in spontaneous labor at term exhibits a lower expression of interferon-7 and no increase in amniotic fluid type 1 (proinflammatory) cytokines. buy diabetes drugs

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Amniotic Fluid Prolactin: DISCUSSION(7)


In human pregnancy, amniotic fluid prolactin concentrations decline from peak values of 3000-4000 ng/ml at 19-25 wk of gestation to levels around 500 ng/ml between 35 and 41 wk. Kletzky et al. collected samples by transabdominal amniocentesis at 2-wk intervals and could discern no apparent decline at term. birth control pills

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Amniotic Fluid Prolactin: DISCUSSION(6)

Diverse observations indicate that decidual prolactin interacts locally with relaxin, cytokines, and PGs and potentially with other decidual peptides such as oxytocin, growth factors, and corticotropin-releasing hormone, all of which are acknowledged mediators of parturition. The addition of prolactin to human fetal membrane preparations significantly blunted PGE2 production but increased plasminogen activator activity.

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Amniotic Fluid Prolactin: DISCUSSION(5)


Our in vivo results support and extend previous in vitro observations indicating that bacterial products such as li-popolysaccharides and proinflammatory cytokines inhibit prolactin release from human decidual cells. Furthermore, these data indicate that IL-10 can cross the placental membranes as previously demonstrated and thereby inhibit decidual prolactin secretion directly. In addition, an effect on down-regulation of prolactin transport across fetal membranes via a decrease in prolactin receptor number or activity cannot be excluded. Maternal decidua is a complex tissue composed of stromal cells interspersed with a substantial proportion of bone marrow-derived cells. buy levaquin online

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Amniotic Fluid Prolactin: DISCUSSION(4)

Estradiol added to tissue culture or intraamniotic installation of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (which increases amniotic fluid estradiol levels several-fold) had no effect on am-niotic fluid prolactin concentrations. Arachidonic acid, which stimulates the release of pituitary prolactin, inhibits both the basal release and the increase in decidual prolactin in response to PRL-RF.

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Amniotic Fluid Prolactin: DISCUSSION(3)


A vast literature indicates that prolactin also functions as an immunomodulatory protein, but it is difficult to relate prolactin’s immune effects to the maintenance of pregnancy. Prolactin is widely regarded as a hormone of immunocompetence that facilitates the rejection of foreign antigens. However, it has been suggested that the local tissue concentrations of prolactin may influence its actions whereby prolactin is immunostimulatory at low doses but inhibitory at high doses. In addition, the prolactin receptor is down-regulated by its cognate ligand, which may explain how high levels of prolactin can inhibit immune responses. asthma inhalers

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Amniotic Fluid Prolactin: DISCUSSION(2)

There is compelling evidence that amniotic fluid prolactin originates from the decidua rather than the maternal or fetal pituitary glands. For example, in human and in rhesus monkey pregnancy, amniotic fluid levels of prolactin are 10- to 50-fold higher than in maternal or fetal blood. Also, in the rhesus monkey, the quantities of prolactin in amniotic fluid at early, mid, and late gestation reflect the capacity of the decidua to synthesize and secrete prolactin. Suppression of maternal serum prolactin concentrations by hypophysectomy or bromocriptine therapy does not reduce amniotic fluid prolactin concentrations. The protein structure of decidual prolactin is identical to that of pituitary prolactin, but the cellular regulation of the synthesis and secretion of decidual prolactin differs markedly from that of pituitary prolactin. Finally, decidual prolactin is regulated by a different promoter region on the prolactin gene than pituitary prolactin. buy prednisone

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Amniotic Fluid Prolactin: DISCUSSION(1)


We have previously described, in pregnant rhesus monkeys, the temporal relationships among amniotic fluid bacterial counts, cytokines, PGs, and increases in uterine contractility that have established a causal relationship between intraamniotic infection and premature labor in primates. This study provides new evidence that intrauterine bacterial infection with GBS decreases amniotic fluid levels of prolactin in a clear and progressive fashion. buy antibiotics online

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Amniotic Fluid Prolactin: RESULTS(4)

Prolactin levels declined in the presence of IL-ip plus indomethacin (p < 0.05).
The prolactin levels of the 5 animals treated with IL-1 Э plus indomethacin were stratified into three time periods for statistical analysis, and the results are shown in Figure 5, A and B. There was a significant decline in prolactin immediately after infusion that was maintained to 72 h. These results are similar to the results obtained with IL-lfi alone.

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Amniotic Fluid Prolactin: RESULTS(3)


In all animals except one, increases in amniotic fluid concentrations of IL-1 (3 and TNFa preceded the decreases in amniotic fluid prolactin (Table 1). An increase in PGE2 also preceded the decrease in prolactin (Table 2). Progesterone levels in the amniotic fluid, maternal artery, and fetal vein were higher at the onset of labor (after infection) than prior to infection, indicating that the decrease in prolactin was not due to a decrease in progesterone in any of these compartments (Table 3). The progesterone, IL-1 p, TNFa, and PGE2 concentrations resulting from the intraamniotic inoculations were reported earlier in a different format and are presented here to facilitate comparison.

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