Category Archives: Helicobacter pylori

Structural Changes in Airway Diseases: Conclusions

Various methodologic aspects should, however, be taken into account when studying these effects.
For example, some agents could possibly be more effective at preventing than reversing airway remodeling, and the duration of treatment and doses of the agents should be considered, as well as the type and duration of the disease. Research on gene therapy in lung diseases is currently under scrutiny. Other than CF or a1-antitrypsin deficiency, it is highly unlikely that a single vector will be therapeutic, as multiple genes are implicated in asthma and COPD diseases. Gene therapy has been studied mostly in relation to CF. Vectors and incorporating techniques need to be optimized to prove helpful in treatment of CF patients. Overall, primary prevention of airway disease is likely to be the most effective tool and can be achieved by allergen avoidance, smoking avoidance, control of infections, or prenatal diagnosis. Treatment of other allergic diseases might possibly prevent the development of asthma, especially in allergic rhinitic subjects and in subjects with asymptomatic AHR and has to be further studied.

Although this is still controversial, we have evidence that the airway remodeling process may have untoward consequences in obstructive diseases, in the clinical expression of the disease, in its development, and in the decline in pulmonary function. The common factor underlying all the structural changes in airway diseases is an injury/repair process. In asthma, the damage follows an allergenic or nonal-lergenic Th2 inflammation and mechanical stress. In COPD, the initial trigger is cigarette smoke inducing direct cell toxicity and inflammatory response. An infectious process is both at the origin of the inflammation observed in CF and bronchiectasis patients. More research should be done to identify key changes, effective treatments, and proper interventional timing to counteract these changes. The prevention of the development of asthma, COPD, or other airway diseases through early interventions on structural changes is an exciting avenue. The potential of novel therapeutic agents to reverse or prevent airway remodeling warrants further evaluation.

Immunoregulatory Activity in Adult Rat: DISCUSSION(6)

While the majority of the inhibitory activity is likely to be due to a protein or large peptide, it is not due to one of the TGFfi family isoforms known to be responsible for the majority of lymphocyte-inhibiting activity of cryptorchid testis extracts. This study does not eliminate TGF(3 as a regulatory factor in the adult testis; however, it does indicate that TGFp may not be the major immunomodulatory activity responsible for immune privilege in the normal testis. Interestingly, the present data are not entirely consistent with previous reports of a large molecular weight (> 130 000) lymphocyte-inhibiting protein in normal rat testicular IF, which was labile at 56°C and at low pH, or of a smaller protein from immature rat Sertoli cell cultures that was heat stable even at 100°C. buy ortho tri-cyclen online

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Immunoregulatory Activity in Adult Rat: DISCUSSION(5)


The inhibitory activity is not due to a nonspecific cytotoxic activity, as indicated by the observations that 1) thymocyte viability was maintained even at high doses of IF and 2) IF did not inhibit the growth of the non-lymphocytic K562 human cell line. Moreover, the inhibitory activity displays some degree of tissue specificity in that it is present at considerably higher levels in testicular IF as compared with serum or the aqueous humor of the eye. flovent inhaler

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Immunoregulatory Activity in Adult Rat: DISCUSSION(4)

During inflammation, IL-1 stimulates the activity of monocytes/macrophages and T cells, as well as the invasion of these cells and neutrophils into the site of inflammation via actions on the endothelium. The presence of bioactive IL-1 in testicular IF raises the question why the testicular interstitium is not a chronically inflamed tissue. While numerous mononuclear cells, particularly macrophages and lymphocytes, are present in the normal testis at any time, the lymphocytes that are present are not activated, and neutrophils are not usually observed. It is likely therefore that there are other factors present in the testis environment that oppose the proinflammatory activities of IL-1, and consequently it is not surprising that at higher doses testicular IF opposes the actions of IL-1 in vitro. The cellular origin of this activity remains to be established, but its presence in the testis and biological potency clearly suggest that it is an important mediator of testicular immuno-regulation. buy diabetes drugs

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Immunoregulatory Activity in Adult Rat: DISCUSSION(3)


The physiological significance of the detection of bioactive IL-1 in normal testicular IF is uncertain. Although the possibility cannot be excluded that the levels of IL-1 measured in the present study may be due in part to release or leakage from the Sertoli cells during the collection period, a previous study using a push-pull cannula approach to collect testicular IF indicated that significant IL-1 bioactivity is normally present in this fluid in vivo. levitra super active plus

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Immunoregulatory Activity in Adult Rat: DISCUSSION(2)

Significantly, IL-1 was clearly detectable even at a very large dilution of the IF (1:1000) in the in vitro bioassay. However, in some experiments the stimulatory activity of IF was not completely blocked by IL-lra even though this is a maximally inhibiting dose. Moreover, there was residual stimulatory activity in at least some IF samples after heating to 100°C, although purified IL-1 is not heat stable. These data suggested that there are additional stimulatory factors in IF that may potentiate the IL-1 response in vitro. Nonetheless, the data indicate that the levels of IL-1 bioactivity in testicular IF are much higher than found in normal serum and are several times higher than the concentration required to exert a biological response. buy asthma inhaler

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Immunoregulatory Activity in Adult Rat: DISCUSSION(1)


This study establishes that the principal T cell growth-stimulating factor in IF collected from normal rat testes is bioactive IL-1, indicating also that the levels of this activity in IF are biologically significant. In addition, we have confirmed the presence in normal IF of a factor (or factors) that inhibits the in vitro activation and/or proliferation of T cells, whether stimulated by the lectin PHA or by a T-cell receptor-activating antibody. Similar results were obtained when homologous (rat) or heterologous (mouse), and mature (peripheral blood lymphocytes and splenocytes) or immature (thymocyte), T-cell culture systems were used. This inhibitory activity appears to be due to one or more mac-romolecular factors that are either produced or activated in the testis. It has been demonstrated that a homologous PHA-activated rat thymocyte culture system provides a convenient, reproducible, and quantifiable assay for this bioactivity, which can be utilized in studies of its biological function. birth control pills

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Immunoregulatory Activity in Adult Rat: RESULTS(4)

Preliminary Characterization of IF Inhibitory Activity

The T cell-inhibiting activity of IF was stable at 60°C (up to 30 min) but was reduced by heating at 100°C for 5 min (Fig. 5A). These observations were not altered when the samples were dialyzed after heat treatment. Some stimulatory activity, however, continued to be detected in IF samples treated at 100°C. The IF inhibitory activity was not affected by dialysis under acid (pH 2.0) conditions (Fig. 5B).

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Immunoregulatory Activity in Adult Rat: RESULTS(3)


In addition to its effects on thymocytes, testicular IF completely inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation by mature T cells (peripheral blood lymphocytes or rat spleno-cytes) stimulated with PHA (data not shown) or the anti-Tcell receptor antibody R73 (Fig. ЗА). Inhibition below the unstimulated level of [3H]thymidine incorporation was also observed in the splenocyte cultures (Fig. ЗА). In contrast, IF over the same range of doses stimulated [3H] thymidine incorporation by the non-lymphocytic K562 erythroid cell line (Fig. 3B). buy antibiotics online

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Immunoregulatory Activity in Adult Rat: RESULTS(2)

The stimulatory activity of IF in the rat thymocyte proliferation assay was inhibited by an excess of human recombinant IL-lra (10 |xg/ml) (Fig. 2). This concentration of IL-lra completely inhibited the hrIL-1 (3 standard over the same dose-response range (data not shown). However, in four experiments out of a total of nine experiments, two IF pools retained a minor proportion (30-49%) of their stimulatory activity even in the presence of the IL- Ira, indicating the presence of minor amounts of lymphocyte growth-stimulating activities that could not be attributed to IL-1.

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