Category Archives: Benzodiazepine

Benzodiazepine kinetics contribute to their differential abuse: METHODS(1)

Two databases and literature data on benzodiazepine kinetics were used.

Benzodiazepine use in Canada

Adopting the defined daily dose (ddd) methodology , total sales of benzodiazepines in Canada were used as one of the databases. Cumulative year and sales statistics are based on invoices of drug deliveries to a sample of community and hospital pharmacies. The data are then projected nationally by Intercontinental Medical Statistics (ims) Canada, to represent the total sales to communities and hospitals in the country. Individual and total benzodiazepine use are expressed as number of ddd/ 1000 inhabitants/ day. Patterns of use are monitored over the years .

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Benzodiazepine kinetics contribute to their differential abuse: part 2

Kinetic parameters also contribute to the abuse liability of drugs. In many cases, differences in absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion may explain different abuse liability profiles of cheap drugs within the same class. Rapid delivery of the drug into the brain, whether by rapid absorption or intravenous injection, will provide the optimal condition for reinforcing properties and drug re administration. Rapid and complete absorption is associated with a rapid onset of the effects (subjective and objective) of the drugs. Drugs with these characteristics seem to be preferred to the ones for which absorption rate is slow and the immediate subjective effects of the drug are therefore dimini shed. A recent study has conclusively shown that the rate of increase of plasma levels influences the subjective eftects of drugs of abuse in humans. Continue reading

Benzodiazepine kinetics contribute to their differential abuse

benzodiazepine dependence

Drug abuse behaviour is the consequence of an interaction between the drug and the individual. More specifically, abuse potential ofa prescription drug is mainly determined by five factors: the intrinsic pharmacological action of the drug, the availability or market exposure, the recommended and prescribed drug dose, patient-related factors and the pharma cokinetic properties of the particular drug. Price and fashion also play a role in the abuse of street drugs but these will not be discussed here.

The intrinsic pharmacological action(s) of a drug is the major determinant of whether a drug is likely to be abused. Evidence for this includes correspondence within and among drug classes with respect to intensity of self-administration by animals and humans, extent of substitution in physically dependent animals and generalized preference for the drug. Appearance ofwithdrawalmay contribute to the maintenance of abuse; however withdrawal is neither sufficient nor necessary to maintain drug administration. With respect to the intrinsic pharmacological activity, benzodiazepines are weak reinforcers and maintain low levels of selfadministration compared with other drugs of abuse such as narcotics or barbiturates. Therefore, in this respect they have relatively low abuse potential. Dreaming of a reliable pharmacy that could give you an opportunity to buy any amounts of generic viagra professional online with no prescription required and spend less money?

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