The only other comparative study ofbenzodiazepine abuse was a German study which showed that 7% of all inpatients in a p sy chiatric ward met the World Health Organization criteria for drug abuse and dependence and 77% of them abused benzodiazepines; 30% abused only benzodiazepines and diazepam, bromazepam and lorazepam (in that order) were preferred. These data, however, were not corrected for availability of the drugs.
Kinetic characteristics have been previously postulated to be among the factors determining abuse and dependence liability . Boisse and Okamoto showed that elimination half-life influenced the timing and severity of barbiturate withdrawal syndrome; long acting barbiturates (ti/ 2=80 h) were less liable to produce a rapid, strong withdrawal reaction in animals than shorter acting ones (ti/ 2 = 25 h). Kalant et al anticipated that this principle should be valid for other classes of abused drugs and Holtister postutated that physical dependence – as manifested by withdrawal – is more likely to be observed in drugs with ti/ 2 of 6 to 20 h. Also, rapid delivery into the brain (whether by rapid absorption or rapid entry to the central nervous system) provides the optimal condition to encourage self-administration. buy ortho tri-cyclen online