Follicular development through preantral stages requires several cycles of granulosa cell division, which is an energy-dependent process. Under in vitro condition, glycolysis is the predominant source of ATP for mouse preantral follicles. Because an oxygen concentration gradient exists in ovarian follicles, glucose-handling capacity may differ in developing follicles because the layers of granulosa cells increase as follicles grow. Increased follicular glycolytic activity has been reported in the rat treated with LH, and increased lactic acid production in vitro by rat eCG-treated follicles has been observed in response to FSH. buy yasmin online
Boland et al. have shown that mouse preantral follicles grown in vitro produce more lactate when exposed to FSH and LH; however, pyruvate production does not change. Because follicular cell multiplication and differentiation are significantly influenced by intraovarian growth factors and both of these cellular events require energy, modulation of follicular glucose metabolic enzymes by mitogenic and differentiation-inducing factors during preantral follicle development is likely. However, the effect of gonadotropins or intraovarian growth factors on human preantral follicular glucose metabolism is not known.